Home Map Pages Gloss Pics

Or use your browser's BACK button

Voynich MS - Web Resources and References

For references used at this site, see below.

Web resources

It is particularly difficult to keep an up to date list of the most important web resources about the Voynich MS. Feel free to contact me about missing or broken links and I will try to keep this up to date.

Beinecke Library

The first and foremost web resource is that of the Beinecke Library:
>> web page with links to all images.
>> original catalogue entry, which also describes the additional material preserved with the MS.



The >>Voynich MS entry in the general English Wikipedia is being steadily improved.

The equivalent >>Voynich MS entry in the general German Wikipedia appears to be more up to date.

There is an interesting >>German language Voynich MS wiki

There is a >>Wiki book dedicated to the Voynich MS which currently still requires a lot of work.

Other sites with general information

There are innumerable web sites that copy or reformulate information about the Voynich MS available elsewhere. I don't consider it either possible or interesting to attempt to list them all here. The web sites below all have some original content.

The Voynich mailing list, which was originally at rand.org and for a short time at cryptogram.org is now a majordomo list. It has a home page, which is >> http://www.voynich.net. Visit this site to find general information about the Voynich MS, and specific information about the mailing list. It also hosts the early mail archive, including all E-mails exchanged from 1991 to 2002.

Jim Gillogly's original FTP site is probably the earliest site dedicated to the Voynich MS, with some files of historic interest. This link has disappeared long ago, but Jorge Stolfi has provided a >> mirror site.

>> Jim Reeds' site (mirror by Jorge Stolfi) has the most complete bibliography, and further essential general information about the MS.

The most convenient way of browsing the Voynich MS is by using a >>tool developed by Jason Davies called the Voynich MS Voyager.

A >>Voynich Query Processor (>> alternative address) by someone called Job looks like a very promising development.

>> Jorge Stolfi's site presents his analysis results. He also makes available all scripts used in these. Furthermore he has another list of links to on-line Voynich MS material.

The >> site of Philip Neal, with a vast amount of reference material for the history of the Voynich MS, which I am referring to very extensively.

>> Rafal T. Prinke's Voynich MS pages with emphasis on the history of the MS during the reign of Rudolf II of Bohemia and a rebuttal of the suggestion that Dee had anything to do with the MS. Also includes biographical information about Wilfrid and Ethel Voynich.

Edith Sherwood presents several of her theories in well-presented web pages, for example:

A >> site of Sean Palmer. Additional pages of interest not (yet) linked there are:

The >> web site of Colin McKinnon has a unique collection of documentary evidence related to Wilfrid and Ethel Voynich, and Anne Nill.

An extentensive web site by Jan Hurych with many articles on many topics: >>Entry page, and >>List of articles.

A >>wiki-style web site by a mailing list member know under the nickname Knoxmix, with his anaylses of the Voynich MS text.

Xavier Ceccaldi used to have detailed background information about the Collegium Romanum and the Villa Mondragone. The original site is closed, but I am hosting a complete and unmodified copy of it here, with his permission.

>> Dennis Stallings' site holds a collection of historical precedents of the manuscript and a description of some of his analyses.

Berj Ensanian maintains the >>Journal of Voynich Studies in which he and a handful of other participants analyse a vast number of details directly or indirectly related to the Voynich MS.

>> Takeshi Takahashi's site is certainly one of the largest web resource about the Voynich MS, written in Japanese. This site also has available his complete >> transcription of the VMS.

>>John Grove

>>Vladimir Sazonov

>> John Baez

Some tentative solutions and theories

Gordon Rugg explains his theory that the Voynich MS was made by Edward Kelly using Cardan grilles, as published in Cryptologia, January 2004 (new link needed).

There are two independent attempts to link (among others) the astronomical pages in the Voynich MS to celestial events:
A >>blog by Robert Teague
An >>analysis by P.Han.

A very decorative >>site presenting a tentative solution to the Voynich MS, in French and English.

>>Dan Gibson

>>Don Hoffman


References below include both general works about the Voynich MS and publications cited anywhere at this webe site.

Aiton, E.J.: Ioannes Marcus Marci (1595-1667), in: Annals of Science. London XXVI, 153-164.

Allen, R. H.: Star Names: Their Lore & Meaning, 1899. Dover Books reprint, 1963

Anon: Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago (1907-1951), Vol. 9, No.7 (Nov.1, 1915), pp. 97-100

Antonin, L.: Athanasius Kircher a magie prirodni

Arber, A.: Herbals, their origin and evolution. A chapter in the history of botany, 1470-1670, Cambridge University Press, 1912.

Barthélemy, Pierre: Le codex Voynich: le manuscrit le plus mystérieux du monde Paris, J.-C. Gawsewitch éditeur, 2005, ISBN 2-35013-022-3

Batllori S.J., Miquel: El pare Ehrle, prefecte de la Vaticana, en la seva correspondència amb el cardenal Respolla In: Collectanea vaticana in honorem Anselmi M. card. Albareda a Bibliotheca apostolica edita. Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1962, 2 vol. (Studi e testi 219-220), vol.1, pp. 75-117.

Bauer, R. and H. Haupt: Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607-1611. Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, Vol. 72, 1976.

Bennett, William Ralph: Scientific and Engineering Problem Solving with the Computer. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1976.

Blevins, Pamela: , Ethel Voynich — 'E.L.V.', Revolutionary, Novelist, Translator, Composer, >> available on-line

Blunt, Wilfrid, and Sandra Raphael: The illustrated herbal, London, 1979

Böhm, Louis: Kralovske venne mesto Melnik, Melnik, 1892.

Bolton, Henry Carrington: The follies of science at the court of Rudolf II, 1576-1612; Milwaukee, Pharmaceutical Review Publishing Co, 1904.

Browne, Sir Thomas: Citation in Calder

Brumbaugh, Robert S.: The Most Mysterious Manuscript - The Voynich "Roger Bacon" Cipher Manuscript, G. Southern Illinois University Press, 1978.

Calder: Thesis
>> available on-line

Capelli, A.: dizionario di abbreviature Latini ed Italiani, Milano, 1912. 529 pp., ill.
>> available on-line

Carini Dainotti, Virginie: La Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele al Collegio Romano. Olschki, Firenze, 1956.

Collins, Minta: Medieval herbals: the illustrative traditions , British Library Studies in Medieval Culture, 2000.

Dorez, Léon: Recherches sur la bibliothèque de Pier Leoni, médecin de Laurent de Médicis, in: Revue des Bibliothèques, IV, 1894, pp. 73-83.

Dorez, Léon: Recherches sur la bibliothèque de Pier Leoni, médecin de Laurent de Médicis (2e article), in: Revue des Bibliothèques, VII, 1897, pp. 81-107

Drugulin, W.E.: Allgemeiner Portrait-Katalog, Leipzig, 1860

Evans, R.J.W.: Rudolf II and his world, a study in intellectual history 1576-1612, Oxford University Press, 1973

Evans, R.J.W.: The making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550-1700: an interpretation, Oxford University Press, 1984

Feely, Joseph M: Roger Bacon's Cipher: The Right Key Found, Rochester, 1943

Fell-Smith, Charlotte: John Dee (1527-1608), London, Constable & Company Ltd., 1909
>> available on-line

Findlen, Paula: Scientific spectacle in Baroque Rome: Athanasius Kircher and the Roman College Museum. In: Roma Moderna e Contemporanea, anno III, no. 3, 1995, pp. 625-665.

Fletcher, John E.: A brief survey of the unpublished correspondence of Athanasius Kircher S J. (1602-80), in: Manuscripta, XIII, St. Louis, 1969, pp. 150-60.

Fletcher, John E.: Johann Marcus Marci writes to Athanasius Kircher. Janus, Leyden, LIX (1972), pp. 97-118

Fletcher, John E.: Athanasius Kircher und seine Beziehungen zum gelehrten Europa seiner Zeit Wolfenbütteler Arbeiten zur Barockforschung, Band 17, 1988.

Garber, M.: Optics and alchemy in the philosophical writings of Marcus Marci in post-Rudolphine Prague 1612-1670, dissertation submitted for the degree Doctor of Philosophy, San Diego, 2002.

Garrucci, R.: Origini e vicende del Museo Kircheriano dal 1651 al 1773. In: La Civiltà Cattolica, ser. 10, Vol. XII, 1879, pp. 727-39.

Gessman, Gustav W.: Die Geheimsymbole der Alchymie, Arzneikunde und Astrologie des Mittelalters, Berlin, Verlag von Karl Siegismund, 1922.

Ghiron, I.: Vita di Vittorio Emanuele, Agnelli, 1882.

Godwin, Joscelyn: Athanasius Kircher: A Renaissance Man and the Quest for Lost Knowledge. London, Thames and Hudson, 1979

Grossman, L.: When words fail. The struggle to decipher the world's most difficult book, Lingua Franca, April 1999.

Haakman, A.: De onderaardse wereld van Athanasius Kircher, Meulenhoff, 1991.

Holmes van Mater, D.: The Garrett Manuscript of Marcanova, 1927.

Hunt, Arnold: Foreign Dealers in the English Trade in: Giles Mandelbrote, ed. Out of Print & Into Profit: A History of the Rare and Second hand Book Trade in Britain in the Twentieth Century. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press; London: The British Library, 2006, pp. 245-267.

D'Imperio, Mary E. : The Voynich Manuscript - an elegant enigma, Aegean Park Press, 1978.
It can be >> downloaded from the NSA (31.2 MB pdf)

Kahn, David: The Codebreakers. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Kennedy, Gerry and Rob Churchill: The Voynich manuscript; the mysterious code that has defied interpretation for centuries, 2004, 2006.

Kraus, Hans P.: A rare book saga -- The autobiography of H. P. Kraus. New York: Putnam's, 1978.

Krischer, J. P.: The Voynich Manuscript Harvard University term paper, 1969

Landini, Gabriel and René Zandbergen: A Well-kept Secret of Mediaeval Science: the Voynich manuscript, in: Aseculapius (details to be added).

Landini, Gabriel: Evidence of linguistic structure in the Voynich MS using spectral analysis, in Cryptologia Vol. 25 Issue 4, 2001, pp. 275-295.

Langenmantel, Hieronymus: Fasciculus epistolarum Adm. R. P. Athanasii Kircheri Soc. Jesu (etc), Augustae Vindelicorum, Ao. 1684, 8vo, pp.100.

Lazzari S.J., Pietro: Miscellaneorum ex mss. libris Bibliothecae Collegii Romani Societatis Iesu tomus primus, Romae, 1754; ... tomus secundus, Romae, 1757

Levitov, Leo: Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A Liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy, the Cult of Isis. Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, 1987.

Liva, Vaclav: Seznamy prazskych novomest'anu za leta 1618–1653 Praha 1937.

Lo Sardo, Eugenio (ed): Athanasius Kircher S.J., Il Museo del Mondo, Edizioni de Luca, 2001.

Manly, John M.: The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World: Did Roger Bacon Write It and Has the Key Been Found? in Harper's Monthly Magazine 143 (1921): pp. 186-97.

Marci, Johannes Marcus: Philosophia Vetus Restituta, 1662

Marek, Jiri: Un physicien Tchèque du XVII siècle: J.M. Marci de Kronland (1595-1667), in: Revue d'histoire des sciences, Paris 1968 XXI 109-130

De Marinis, Tammaro: Manuscrits, incunables et livres rares / Livrairie ancienne, 1913

De Marinis, Tammaro: La biblioteca napoletana dei re d'Aragona, t. 2, Milano, 1947

Martina S.J., Giacomo: Il Collegio Romano: 1824 - 1873. In: Roma Moderna e Contemporanea, anno III, no. 3, 1995, pp. 667-691.

Meister, Aloys: Die Anfänge der modernen diplomatischen Geheimschrift. Paderborn, 1902.

Meister, Aloys: Die Geheimschrift im Dienste der päpstlichen Kurie von ihren Anfängen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, Paderborn, 1906.

Millicent Sowerby, Emily: Rare People and Rare Books, London: Constable, 1967

Neue Deutsche Biographie: pp.119-120, by Ivo Schneider

Newbold, William Romaine: The Cipher of Roger Bacon. Edited with foreword and notes by Roland Grubb Kent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1928.

Nový, L. and J. Folta (eds.): Acta historiae rerum naturalium necnon technicarum. Special issue 3, Prague, 1967

O'Neill, Hugh: Botanical Observations on the Voynich Manuscript. Speculum 19 (1944) p. 126

Ottuv slovník naucný: 35 Vols., Prague, 1900.

Pelling, Nicholas: The curse of the Voynich; the secret history of the world's most mysterious manuscript, Compelling Press, Surbiton, 2006.

Pelzel, Franz Martin: Abbildungen Böhmischer und Mährischer Gelehrten und Künstler nebst kurzen Nachrichten von ihrem Leben und Wirken, Prague, 1773-1782

Pick, Fridel Johann Jessenius, Leipzig 1916

Podlaha, Anton: T?i ?eští laikové literární obránci víry katolické ve století XVI. a XVII. (Blažej z Votina, Jakub Hor?ický z Tepence, Jan Benedikt Smolík.), Sborník Historického kroužku, sešit 5 (1896), p. 3-24 (Hor?ický p. 10-20).

Prag um 1600, Kunst und Kultur am Hofe Rudolfs II, Kulturstiftung Ruhr Essen, Luca Verlag Freren 1988.

Prinke, R. and R.Zandbergen: Najdziwniejszy dokument ?redniowieczny. Komputerowe próby rozszyfrowania R?kopisu Wojnicza [in:] Rafal T. Prinke [ed.], Megabajty dziejów. Informatyka w badaniach, popularyzacji i dydaktyce historii, Poznan 2007, p. 45-62

Prinke, Rafal: History of the Manuscript from Rudolf to Voynich, presentation at the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Voynich MS, Villa Mondragone, Monteporzio Catone, 11 May 2012.

Ragazzini, Stefania: Un erbario del XV secolo: il Ms. 106 della Biblioteca di Botanica dell'Universita di Firenze, Firenze, 1983.

Reddy, Sravana, and Keving Knight: What we know about the Voynich Manuscript, in Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities, 2011.

Reeds, Jim: William F. Friedman's Transcription of the Voynich Manuscript, Cryptologia XIX, 1995.
A PDF draft is >>available here.

Reeds, Jim: John Dee and the Magic Tables in the Book of Soyga, 1996.
For more information and an electronic copy of his paper, see the >> wikipedia article.

Reeds, Jim: private communication, June 1998.

Reilly, Connor: Athanasius Kircher: a master of a Hundred Arts, 1620 - 1680, Studia Kircheriana, Wiebaden, Edizioni del Mondo, 1974.

De Ricci, Seymour: with the assistance of W. J. Wilson: Census of medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada, 1937.

Rivosecchi, V.: Esotismo in Roma Barocca: studi sul Padre Kircher, Roma, Bulzoni, 1982

Roberts, R.J. and A.G. Watson (eds): John Dee's library catalogue. The bibliographical Society, London. (1990)

Ruysschaert, Mgr. José: Codices Vaticani Latini, Codices 11414-11709, Schedis Henrici Carusi Adhibitis, Recensuit José Ruysschaert, Bibliothecae Vaticanae Scriptor, MCMLIX (1959).
The most relevent parts are transcribed here.

Ruysschaert, Mgr. José: Nouvelles recherches au sujet de la bibliotheque de Pier Leoni, Médecin de Laurent le Magnifique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres et des Sciences morales et politiques de l’Académie Royale de Belgique, 46 (1960), pp. 37-65.

Schaefer, Bradley E.: The Most Mysterious Astronomical Manuscript: Baffled researchers are looking for astronomical clues to help decipher a medieval manuscript, Sky & Telescope 100, 5 (November, 2000).

Schinner, Andreas: The Voynich Manuscript. Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis, in: Cryptologia. Philadelphia Vol. 31.2007 (April), pp. 95 ff.

von Schleinitz, Prof. Otto: Die Bibliophilen. W.M.Voynich., in: Zeitschrift für Bücherfreunde, Herausgegeben von Fedor von Zobelitz. 10. Jahrgang 1906/1907, Heft 12: März 1907.

Schmidl S.J., Johannes: Historiae Societatis Jesu Provinciae Bohemiae, pars III, ab anno Christi MDCXVI ad annum MDCXXXII, Pragae, 1754

Segre Rutz, Vera: Il giardino magico degli alchimisti: un erbario illustrato trecentesco della Biblioteca universitaria di Pavia e la sua tradizione. Introduzione, edizione critica e commento, Milano, 2000

De Sepi, G.: Romani Collegii Societatis Jesu Musaeum celeberrimum, Cujus magnum Antiquariae rei, statuarium imaginum, picturarumque partem Ex Legato Alphonsi Domini, S. P. Q. R. A. Secretis, munifica Liberalitate relictum. Etc etc. ... exponit Georgius de Sepibus Valesius, Authoris in Machinis concinnandis executor. Amstelodami, ex Officina Janssonio-Waesbergiana, Anno MDCLXXVIII (1678)

Servít, Zdenek: Zapomenuty zakladatel novoveke fysiologie a mediciny, Bratislava, Veda, 1989.

Skála ze Zhore, P.: Historie Ceska, Prague, 1984.

Smolka, J. and R. Zandbergen: Athanasius Kircher und seine erste Prager Korrespondenz. In: Bohemia Jesuitica 1556-2006, Festschrift zum 450. Jahrestag des Ordens in Böhmen, 2010. pp. 677-705

Sommervogel, Carlos and A. and A. De Backer: Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jesus, 1893. For Kircher, see Vol. 4, cols. 1046-77.

Sowerby, E. Millicent: Rare People and Rare Books. London, Constable, 1967.

Stojko, John: Letters to God's Eye: The Voynich Manuscript for the first time deciphered and translated into English. New York: Vantage Press, 1978.

Svobodný, Petr (ed): Joannes Marcus Marci, a 17th century Bohemian polymath, Prague, Charles University Press, 1998.

Teige, Josef: Umluva; prispevek k diplomatice zapisu Desk zemskych Kralovstvi ceskeho. V Praze, F. Backovsky 1893.

Tiltman, John: The Voynich Manuscript, The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World. NSA Technical Journal 12 (July 1967), pp.41-85.

Toresella, Sergio: Gli erbari degli alchmisti, in: L. Saginati, Arte farmaceutica e piante medicinali; erbari, vasi, strumenti e testi dalle raccolte liguri, 1995

Tranchedino, Francesco: Diplomatische Geheimschriften - Codex Vindobonensis 2398; The Fine Art Facsimile Edition: Codices Selecti vol. XXII. Graz 1970, ed. Walter Höflechner

Vávra, Jos.: Jacobus Horcicky de Tepenec, in Vyrocni zprava Ceske realky Prazske, 1895

Verstraeten S.J., A.M.: Leven van den Hoogeerwaarden Pater Petrus Beckx, XXIIe Generaal Overste van het Gezelschap van Jezus, Antwerpen 1889.

Villoslada S.J., R. Garcia: Storia del Collegio Romano, dal suo inizio (1551) alla sopprezzione della Compagnia di Gesu (1773), Analecta Gregoriana, Roma, 1954.

Vydání Pripravil, K. and Miroslav Truc: Album Academiae Pragensis Societatis Iesu 1573-1617 (1565-1624), Universita Karlova, Praha, 1968.

Voynich, Wilfrid M.: A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript, in: Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Vol. 43, 1921, (read April 20, 1921).

Wagner, Eva Maria: Untersuchungen zu Lesbarkeit und Aussagekraft von Pflanzendarstellungen in mittelalterlichen Kräuterbuchhandschriften am Beispiel des Codex latinus monacensis 28531, Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Fakultät für Biologie der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität zu Freiburg im Breisgau, 2006.

Wilkins, Ernest H.: The University of Chicago Manuscript of the Genealogia Deorum gentilium of Boccaccio, University of Chicago Press, 1927

Wraný, Adalbert: Geschichte der Chemie und der auf Chemischer Grundlage beruhenden Betriebe in Böhmen, bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Prag, 1902.

Zandbergen, R. and R. Prinke: The Voynich MS in Prague, from Rudolf II to Johannes Marcus Marci. In: Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Mathematica et Physica, Vol. 46, Supplementum, 2005, pp. 141-152

Zandbergen, R. and R. Prinke: Voynichuv rukopis v Rodolfinske Praze. In: Alchymie a Rudlof II, edited by I.Purs and V.Karpenko, Artefactum, Praha 2011, pp. 297-314

Zimmern, Helen: The Romance of a Literary Treasure-House. Pall Mall Magazine, July to December, 1908.

Home Map Pages Gloss Pics

Or use your browser's BACK button

Copyright René Zandbergen, 2015
Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.
Latest update: 13/03/2015