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History of research of the Voynich MS


The history of the Voynich MS is described in three parts, on three pages:

This page addresses the third part, the history of the manuscript research and analysis.


When Wilfrid Voynich first saw the manuscript, he immediately considered the 13th Century Franciscan friar Roger Bacon as its possible author, quite probably based on the reference to Bacon in the letter from Marci he found inside it. Some years later he embarked on a study of the MS's history, in the hope of being able to prove this. While that would make the Voynich MS an incredibly important and valuable document in the history of science, a fact to which an antiquarian book dealer would not have been insensitive, it is apparent from the way in which he performed his search that he seems to have genuinely believed that Bacon was the author of this MS (1).

We need, however, first to go back in time, as we now know that already centuries ago people have attempted to solve the puzzle presented by the Voynich MS, primarily that of its illegible text.

The earliest research

The first evidence of attempts to decipher the text of the Voynich MS is visible on its first folio (f1r). In the right-hand margin there is an apparently erased cipher table, which is only partly visible even under UV illumination. It has one column with the characters of the Latin alphabet, a second column with the characters of the Voynich MS aligned with the Latin alphabet, and a third column, slightly more displaced, with again the Latin alphabet, but shifted up by one position. The first attractive idea could be that this is the key to the MS, left here for us by its author, but as we know from character entropy analysis (2), the Voynich MS text cannot be the result of a simple substitution. Therefore, this table is most likely to be a decipherer's attempt, although Dr. Gerhard Strasser proposes an interesting alternative, by which these are notes made by a later owner, who is creating his own code from the cipher alphabet of the Voynich MS (3).

It is not certain when this cipher table was written, or by whom. Like the Tepenec signature on the same page it is faded, and if both were erased at the same time, then perhaps it predates Kircher as the erasure of the signature is more likely to have been done before the MS was sent to Kircher Both Barschius and Marci would be prime suspects here.


Georgius Barschius (or Baresch) wrote one letter to Kircher that has been preserved, and in this he also refers to an earlier submission to Kircher of some samples of the writing of the MS. Both from this letter of 1639, and from the 1665 Marci letter accompanying the Voynich MS (4), it is clear that Barschius must have spent many years trying to read the Voynich MS text. We know from Barschius' letter that he thought that the MS described medicinal wisdom from the Orient, brought to Europe by a traveller. This immediately evokes two associations.

The first is that of Leonhard Rauwolf, famous for his travels to the Orient, during which he collected herbs and plants which he dried and pasted into his herbals. As described in the history page, Rauwolf's herbals were brought to emperor Rudolf II and sold to him.

The second, even more interesting association is with the preface to the German Herbarius or 'Herbarius zu Teutsch,' sometimes also called the German Ortus Sanitatis (5). It appears from the preface of this herbal that its originator was a rich man, who had travelled in the east, and that the medical part of the MS was compiled under his direction by a physician. The latter was probably Dr Johann von Cube, who was town physician of Frankfort at the end of the fifteenth century. Since Barschius also writes in his letter that 'the volume contains pictures of exotic plants which have escaped observation here in Germany' it seems plausible that Barschius owned, or at least used, a copy of this German herbal.

Barschius was an alchemist, interested in its application to medicine (6). We can only guess what Barschius really knew about the origin of the MS. Tantalisingly, Marci writes in his 1665 letter to Kircher that he not only sends him the Voynich MS, but also Barschius' extensive notes of his work. These notes have not surfaced so far. It is rather likely that they have been lost, but if they still survive, they could quite possibly include valuable information. If Kircher received and kept them, they would have been part of the collection confiscated by the Italian state in 1873 and would now be preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma (7).


We know from Marci's letter that Rafael Mnišovský discussed the possible origin of the Voynich MS with Marci. This must have taken place before 1644, the year Mnišovský died. From Philip Neal's translation of the Marci letter it appears that this should have been between 1626 and 1636. In any case, at the time Mnišovský discussed the MS with Marci, Barschius was still alive (8), so still the owner of the MS. Mnišovský states the opinion that the Voynich MS is a Roger Bacon MS. Was this also the opinion at Rudolf's court? We don't know, but it is certain (9) that Roger Bacon was held in the highest esteem at this time, and considered one of the greatest alchemists. Mnišovský was, according to his own words, deeply interested in alchemy, and a great supporter of the Polish alchemist Sendivogius (10).


We have no information about any research by Marci on the Voynich MS. We just know that he held on to the MS between the time of Barschius' death and his own serious decline in health, when he ultimately sent it to Kircher. From the letters of Godefrid A. Kinner (11). we know that Marci was extremely eager to find out what Kircher thought of the MS. He must have been aware of the two different theories of Barschius and Mnišovský, and writes in his letter to Kircher that he does not want to express an opinion about it.


Kircher's complete silence about the Voynich MS has puzzled many. More recently, the Czech historian Josef Smolka discovered Kircher's reply to Barschius' first (now lost) submission of sample writing of the MS (12). In a letter from Kircher to Theodor Moretus, dated 12 March 1639 and now preserved in Moretus' scientific diary kept in the National Library in Prague (13), Kircher responds to a letter from Moretus and writes about unknown symbols from a book surrounded by mystery which Moretus sent to him in his letter. Kircher reports that he was not successful in translating it, but is still hoping for success later on. Furthermore (but this may refer to another item or another page sent by Moretus - the Latin is somewhat ambiguous) he recognises a similarity with certain Illyrian characters in the style of Hieronymus, i.e. the Glagolitic script. We know from Barschius' surviving letter that he had his first submission sent by Moretus, and now we see that Kircher responded to Moretus directly, some six weeks before Barschius sent his 1639 letter. The wording of this letter suggests impatience, perhaps even exasperation from the side of Barschius, but it appears as if no further correspondence took place on this topic.

Back to the 20th century: Wilfrid Voynich

After Voynich acquired the MS, he contacted many experts. Kahn (14) names in this respect: paleographer H. Omont of the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale (who had written a learned article about a 15th-C cryptographic MS on alchemy), Prof. A.G. Little, a foremost authority on Bacon, a Harvard authority of anatomy, George Fabyan of the Riverbank Laboratories, the vice president of the Royal Astronomical Society in London, and Dom Aidan, Cardinal Gasquet, prefect of the Vatican Archives.

When the manuscript was first shown to expert cryptologists, they thought that solving it would be easy as the text was composed of "words", some of which were more frequent and occurred in certain combinations. This soon turned out to be a mistake; the text could not easily be converted into Latin, English, German or a host of other languages.

Parts of Voynich's own research can be reconstructed from his notes in the Beinecke library, and his 1921 publication (15). Remarkably, for at least 6 years after the discovery, he did not pay much attention to the MS history, and only paid passing attention to the Marci letter. From a 1917 letter to cryptologist Edith Rickert, and some 1918 newspaper reports, it appears that by this time the Prague history of the Voynich MS was still completely unknown territory. Until 1918, Voynich believed that the Rudolf mentioned in the Marci letter was Rudolf I (1218-1291), contemporary of R.Bacon, and also that beside Kircher, only kings had owned the MS. He did not yet realise who was Marci, and had apparently not yet seen the Ex Libris of Tepenec. By 1919, though, he had clearly realised that the Rudolf in the Marci letter was Rudolf II, and he had started his search for the unknown seller of the MS to him (16). A handwritten note of Voynich in the Beinecke library contains a list of names he found, and we can be certain that he extracted these names from Bolton (1904) (17). His conclusion was that a Roger Bacon MS was most likely brought to Prague by John Dee (18).

Then, apparently in preparation for his 1921 publication, he concentrated on tracing the history of the MS by investigating the people associated with it. To research the Prague part of the history, he wrote to the Bohemian state archives early in 1921, inquiring primarily about Jacobus de Tepenec and Dr. Raphael. In parallel he had his London employee Herbert Garland research Tepenec. This correspondence has largely been preserved. Garland seems to have spent most of his time in the library of the British Museum and was very effective, and Voynich sent him ever increasing requests for other names (19). From these letters we see that Voynich based all his knowledge about the court of Rudolf on the same source (20). By the time Voynich received a very long and detailed answer from Prague, from Dr. Ladislav Klicman in March 1921, Garland had already provided him with many of the essentials (21), and Miss Howe, of the same London office of Voynich, had found the indication of the previous owner: Barschius, in the book 'Philosophia Vetus Restituta' of Marci. In his thank-you letter to Dr. Klicman, Voynich further inquires about Barschius, but there does not appear to be any answer (22). From correspondence between Voynich and James Westfall Thompson, historian of the University of Chicago, which took place after his 1921 presentation, it appears that Voynich was intent on re-writing the biography of Dee, or at least his early years. Thompson managed to find out quite a bit about the origin of many Bacon MSs that Dee once owned, including hints of an encrypted MS, but this was only a few years before Voynich's death, and it is not clear what happened with this information.

Voynich also found out from a catalogue of Kircher's museum: De Sepi (1678) (23) that there once was a 12-volume binding of Kircher's correspondence, and immediately realised (correctly as we have seen) that this must be a valuable source for additional information about his MS (24). He decided to find out about this collection with Henri Hyvernat (about whom more below), who was in Rome at the time. For an as yet unknown reason, Voynich did not write to Hyvernat directly, but asked his trusted friend W.W. Bishop to do that for him. Hyvernat then inquired in Rome about Kircher's correspondence, and even the foremost expert, Fr. P. Tacchi Venturi (official historian of the Jesuits), who himself had already searched for it in all the principal libraries in Rome, didn't know anything, and was not even aware of the fact that this was a 12-volume collection. He suggested that it was probably lost sometime between 1773 and 1824.

Newbold and Manly

In 1919, some of the reproductions of the Voynich MS reached one William Romaine Newbold, a professor of philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. He set to work and decided that the Voynich MS is based on a very complicated cipher, involving anagrams of sections of 55 to 110 characters. He presented plain text solutions of various pages of the MS, indicating that it was written by Roger Bacon, and that Bacon had invented and used both a telescope and a microscope. He presented these results in April 1921, accompanied by Wilfrid Voynich's own presentation of the history of the MS (as mentioned above) and a presentation about the validity of Newbold's claims by an eminent professor of medicine: C.E. McClung.

In 1926 Newbold died, and the book that he had planned to write was published posthumously by his friend Roland Grubb Kent, in 1928 (25). His results were supported by such famous people as Étienne Gilson and Raoul Carton.

Among others, Newbold identified one page of the MS as a depiction of the great Andromeda nebula. The illustration shows a clear spiral structure and the deciphered text includes words referring to a spiral in the sky. The problem is that the spiral structure of this nebula can only be distinguished by modern telescopes (and this was achieved first not long before Newbold's days).

In 1931 John Manly wrote a critical paper (26) about Newbold's theory, exposing its important weaknesses. Newbold did not use the letters of the Voynich MS itself, but the irregularities of the edges of the letters as seen under a magnifying glass, which he converted to letters. The unreliability of a solution based on anagrams was however the most important objection. Newbold and all those who followed his belief were to some extent disgraced and this may have had the effect of scaring off serious research of the Voynich MS.

Manly also left a statement that the solution of the Voynich MS is a relatively simple substitution cipher with extensive use of nulls. It has not been understood what he meant.

The Catholic University of America

In 1931, Mrs Voynich (E.L.V in the following), owner of the MS after the death of her husband, brought a photostatic copy of the MS to Prof. H. Hyvernat of the Catholic University. Hyvernat was a well-known expert on near-Eastern languages. In 1910 he had discovered a major collection of Coptic Manuscripts, and he had since been engaged in a major effort to ensure that the collection could stay together, rather than be scattered in different libraries all over the world. The Pierpont Morgan Library in New York was found willing to purchase the entire collection.

Returning to the Voynich MS, both Hyvernat and his assistant, Fr. Theodore Petersen, were immediately attracted to the problem presented by the MS. Prof. Hyvernat was too busy (and he also suffered from serious health problems) to spend much time on it. Fr. Petersen was not.

Theodore C. Petersen

Fr. Petersen started by making a complete photocopy of the photostats. He then embarked on the project of making a hand copy of the Voynich MS, using also the original MS kept in a safe deposit vault in New York, in the case of difficult passages. He completed it in 1944. Each page of this transcription includes comments about what it might represent. He also indicates odd character sequences and highlights frequent words. He includes many tentative plant identifications in the herbal section, using especially material by Holm and O'Neill (see below). These are presented in a dedicated page. He has also made a complete concordance of the words in the MS, but I have not seen this.

He worked on the Voynich MS until his death, and a very extensive correspondence between him, Miss Nill and E.L.V. on all possible related subjects has been preserved in the Beinecke Library archives. He became their most trusted expert, and new interested people, once they also acquired the confidence of E.L.V. and Anne Nill (e.g. Dr. Salomon, W. Friedman) were invariably referred to him. After his death, his material was given to Friedman (see below) and an inventory was made by Tiltman (see below). The material is now kept in the >> George C. Marshall Library and Archives, Lexington (Va).

Theodor Holm

A Danish botanist and zoologist (not Dutch as reported by D'Imperio (1978) (27), Section 3.3.1) who worked at the Catholic University and identified 16 plant species, all typically European. Quoted frequently in the hand transcription of Petersen.

Hugh O'Neill

O'Neill was a Benedictine monk and botanist at the Catholic University who identified some plants as being New-World species, specifically Sunflower and Capsicum, see O'Neill (1944) (28). He is also quoted frequently in the hand transcription of Petersen.

Some science and art historians

Erwin Panofsky

The famous Renaissance Art (in particular Albrecht Dürer) expert Panofsky (1892 - 1968) first became interested in the Voynich MS in 1931. This is recorded in correspondence of Anne Nill preserved both in the Beinecke Library and in the Grolier Club (29).

In spring 1931 he came to New York and Miss Belle Greene of the Morgan Library showed him a photostat of one of the zodiac pages of the Roger Bacon cipher MS. He at once recognised it as bearing a close resemblance to one page in a MS made in Spain for Alfonso the Wise, and asked to see the other pages. Miss Greene then contacted Mrs Voynich, who came to meet him at the Morgan Library where she showed him the photostats. (According to Nill these were negatives and in poor condition, having greatly faded in some parts). After satisfying himself that no other page resembled either the Spanish MS or any other MS known to him, he became intensely interested and seemed to think that the MS was early, perhaps as early as the 13th century. He asked to see the original, and met with E.L.V. and Anne Nill at the safe deposit vault on a Friday, where he spent two hours examining the MS. His first impression was still that it was early, but as he came to the female figures (in conjunction with the colours used in the manuscript) he came to the conclusion that it could not be earlier than the 15th century. Following summarises his first impression after the two hours of investigation (30):

  1. That it is neither Bacon, nor English work.
  2. That it was written in the south-western corner of Europe: Spain, Portugal, Catalonia, or Provence; but most probably in Spain.
  3. That the date is later than has been supposed: probably somewhere about 1410-20-30. When looking at the Photostats he felt convinced that it was definitely earlier than the 15th century; but, on seeing the female figures more clearly in the original, changed his view.
  4. That it shows Jewish or Arab influence, probably in connection with the Kabbala; but also Dutch or Flemish influence in the female faces and figures and some Spanish or anyhow southern qualities. This last impression was strengthened in his mind by the character of the greens and red.
  5. That it is probably the surviving one of two volumes: the plant and star half of the work which doubtless included also beasts and stones.
  6. That it is, except for one page partly taken from Alfonso’s MS, entirely unlike any MS known to him.

He regarded it, in any case, as interesting and important. He went back to Hamburg, taking with him a complete set of photostats, and promising to ask some of his colleagues there to try if they can solve the problem.

Many years later, Panofsky appears to have changed his mind on some of the aspects. He was requested to answer a list of 15 questions. Following is a summary of the questions and answers (31).

Have you examined the VMS itself?
What is it written on; with what writing tool?
Parchment of some sort, not sure if vellum in the strict sense. Quill pen; coloring done with "wash".
What's the date?
But for the sunflower, would have guessed 1470. However, since the style of the drawings is fairly provincial, a somewhat later date, even the first years of the sixteenth century, would not seem to be excluded. I should not go lower than ca. 1510-1520 because no influence of the Italian Renaissance style is evident. (32)
Why do you think so?
Character of the script, style of drawing, such costumes as are in evidence on certain pages, for example folio 72 recto.
What's it about?
...first, a general cosmological philosophy explaining the medicinal properties of terrestrial objects, particularly plants, by celestial influences transmitted by astral radiation and those "spirits" which were frequently believed to transmit the occult power of the stars to the earth; second, a kind of herbal describing the individual plants used for medical and, conceivably, for magic purposes; third, a description of such compounds as may be produced by combining individual plants in various ways.
Are there any plain text books sort of like the VMS?
Herbals, cosmological and astrological treatises, medical treatises in the narrower sense of the term, and 4th, alchemy books. See Charles Singer, Richard Salomon, ..
What plain text have you found in the VMS?
folio 70 ff in zodiac signs, f 66, and on f 116 v. On f. 66, R. Salomon says "der mus del" which is the same as "der Mussteil" which means the stock of household goods which cannot be withheld from a man's widow on his death. On f 116v, "so nim geismi[l]ch o", meaning, "... take goats milk, or..."
What plants, astronomical, etc, things have you recognized?
Only sunflower (see note 32).
Is it all in the same hand?
Except for last page, all in same hand, but not 100% sure.
Why was it written?
Doctor or quack imparting secret knowledge to son or heir.
Where & when?
What do you think of the Roger Bacon theory?
Quatsch. At variance with all the available facts...
Full title of the Dictionary of Abbreviations. Title of Hans Titze's book on forgeries, & of Mibillon's history of diplomatics.
Adriano Cappelli, Dizionario delle Abbreviature Latine ed Italiane. Titze, Genuine and False: Copies, Imitations, and Forgeries, New York, 1948. Mabillon, De re Diplomatica, 1681.
What other scholars are interested in the VMS?
Only Richard Salomon.
What do you think of the artificial language theory?
Not much: dates are wrong. Maybe Alberti's interest in hieroglyphics was relevant (33).

In conclusion, Panofsky first thought the MS to be Spanish, with Arabic influences, and later changed his opinion that it could be German, mainly influenced by his friend and mentor Richard Salomon (for whom see below). He believed the origin to be in the 15th Century, but allowed a later date in consideration of the work of O'Neill.

Richard Salomon

Salomon (1884 - 1966) was one of the people involved in the founding of the Warburg Institute, and knew the younger Panofsky through this connection. They became close friends (34). Salomon met Anne Nill by chance as he was visiting the Library of Congress in Washington in 1936, where Anne Nill was working with W.J. Wilson (35). It turned out that Salomon was the expert who received the photostats from Panofsky as mentioned above, because, as Salomon told Anne Nill, when Panofsky returned to Hamburg he laid the copies on Dr. Salomon’s desk, and said: “Here is something for you”. Salomon had been working with these very regularly. A long correspondence between Anne Nill and Salomon resulted from this chance encounter.

Salomon believed that the MS may be German. He was convinced that it was written in the 15th century, possibly as late as 1450, possibly earlier in the century. In particular, he suggested the following reading of some phrases in the Voynich MS (which are in the Latin alphabet): der Musdel on f66r and so nimm geiss milch on f116v.

Charles Singer

Singer was a well-known herbal expert. He compared the nymphs in the biological section of the Voynich MS to elements (archaei) in the work of Paracelsus, and generally believed it to be a paracelsan work, for which see D'Imperio (1978) (see note 27), section 3.3.5. As reported in the previous page, he initially upset Anne Nill and E.L.V. with statements that he had seen the Voynich MS in the hands of another book dealer at the time when Voynich had discovered it, and retracted his statements, only to repeat his original opinion about the MS in a letter to Tiltman in 1957.

The end of the Roger Bacon cipher MS

As long as Voynich was still alive, there was no alternative for his theory that this was a Roger Bacon autograph, and his conviction carried forward for some time after his death. As already indicated above, doubts gradually emerged, and Manly's critique had already invalidated Newbold's proposed solution. In the 1937 issue of De Ricci's Census (see note 35) the MS is listed as:

8. Cipher ms. Vel. (date uncertain, authorities hesitate between the XIIIth and XVth c.; we suppose it to be not much older than 1500), ...

Here, 'we' are the administrators of Voynich's estate, i.e. E.L. Voynich and Anne Nill. By this time, their official view no longer favoured R. Bacon as the author.

Other researchers


(See also D'Imperio Section 5.2).
In 1943, a Rochester (N.Y.) lawyer, Joseph Martin Feely, published a book (36) in which he announced his solution of the Voynich MS. His solution essentially proposes that the Voynich MS text results from a single substitution of highly abbreviated Latin. He does not say so specifically, but hints that the writer of the Voynich MS is indeed Roger Bacon. It is worth noting that Feely never obtained access to copies of the MS and had to work from illustrations in Kent & Newbold.
To quote D'Imperio:

Unfortunately for Feely, however, no other student has accepted his solution as valid

And she also quotes Tiltman (1967) (37) (p.6):

His unmethodical method produced text in unacceptable medieval Latin, in unauthentic abbreviated forms.

Some examples of his results are also given in D'Imperio (Fig 25).


Prof. Leonell C. Strong was a medical scientist from Yale University, renowned for his work on cancer, and he became attracted to the Voynich MS by O'Neill's publication. Working from illustrations in Newbold's book of a few pages, he devised a complicated polyalphabetic substitution cipher in which he saw the solution of the MS. The details of his system were not disclosed and can only be partly reconstructed. He concluded that the MS was written by Anthony Askham, the lesser known brother of Roger Askham. Some of his plaintext, which has been heavily criticised as being unrealistic, is given here:

When skuge of tun'e -bag rip, seo uogon kum sli of se mosure-issued ped-stans skubent, stokked kimbo-elbow crawknot.

Some problems with this solution are:

The name of the proposed author (Askham) is read from the deciphered plain text so also this must be taken with some caution.

William and Elizebeth Friedman

The Friedman couple with a photographic copy of the Voynich MS.

The involvement of especially William Friedman with the Voynich MS has been the subject of dedicated publications, most recently by J. Reeds. This short summary cannot do justice to Friedman's work. (See also D'Imperio Section 6.5).

William F. Friedman (1891-1969) is remembered as one of the world's foremost cryptologists. He already became involved with the Voynich MS when, together with Manly, he demonstrated the invalidity of Newbold's theory. Apart from the fact that he spent some time on the MS himself, he also tried very hard to interest other scholars in it. In 1944 he brought together what later became known as the First Study Group (FSG). During his work with them, he developed the theory that the Voynich MS represented a text in a synthetic language (constructed according to strict logical principles).

First Study Group

(See also D'Imperio Section 6.2). The First Study Group (FSG) was active from 1944 to 1946 and consisted of (at least) the following people: (<Reeds)
Robert A. Caldwell
G. E. McCracken
Thomas A. Miller
Frances Puckett, later Frances Wilbur
Mark Rhoads
William M. Seaman

This group, composed of specialists in a wide variety of fields, was doing war work in Washington and awaiting demobilisation. They agreed to get together after working hours and study the Voynich MS under Friedman's leadership. Plans were made for devising a transcription alphabet, and producing a complete transcription in computer-readable form. They transcribed most of the Voynich MS.

Second Study Group

(See also D'Imperio Section 6.4). The so-called second study group was active from 1962-1963, though the term 'Second Study Group' appears not to have been used by them. Jim Reeds has researched also their work. An audio tape of the opening session of their collaboration has been preserved, and the introduction by Friedman has been played to the audience of the Voynich MS panel discussion in the Folger Library on 11 November 2014.

John Tiltman

(See also D'Imperio Section 6.6). John Tiltman was a British intelligence specialist, working in association with William Friedman. The latter asked Tiltman for his opinion on the Voynich MS text, and sent him copies of the final quire of the MS (the so-called recipes section which does not have any illustrations apart from the marginal stars). Friedman and Tiltman independently came to the same conclusion, that the MS text appears like an early example of an artificial (constructed) language.

Tiltman published his findings in an interesting article (see note 37). He also wrote about the work done by Theodore Petersen, a reference which unfortunately I have not seen.

The 1970's

In the 1970's a revival of Voynich MS studies may be observed, with a variety of researchers approaching the problem from many different aspects.

Robert S. Brumbaugh

(D'Imperio section 5.4). Brumbaugh, professor of medieval philosophy, became interested in the Voynich MS during the '30's, and was particularly fascinated by O'Neill's publication about the American plant species. He became a follower of the hypothesis that the MS was a deliberate fraud by Dee and/or Kelly in order to dupe emperor Rudolf II, but that there was an underlying text which he tried to decipher with a code which maps all roman characters (many-to-one) onto the numbers 0-9, and these were mapped (one-to-many) onto the Voynich MS alphabet.

Using this system, Brumbaugh published solutions of some plant labels and of many of the zodiac labels. (Include references here). D'Imperio is quite supportive of Brumbaugh's theories, but despite the multiple degrees of freedom in his cipher, the produced plaintext is anything other than convincing. (38).

William Ralph Bennett

Bennett, another Yale professor, used the Voynich MS in a book about problem solving with the computer (39). Rather than presenting a theory about the meaning of the Voynich MS, Bennett concentrated on the statistics of the text and finding measures of its properties. He was probably the first to note the low entropy of the Voynich MS text, which is discussed extensively in the analysis section of this web site. The only language he found with an entropy similar to the Voynich MS was Hawaiian, without suggesting a connection, though. He also mentioned the similarity of some characters to the Glagolitic script, a view expressed already in the 17th Century by Athanasius Kircher (see above).

Jeffrey Krischer

While still a student, Krischer wrote a paper also investigating the text properties of the Voynich MS. This paper is extremely difficult to find, and we only have D'Imperio's summary analysis of it.

Mary E. D'Imperio

Mary D'Imperio was introduced to the problem of the Voynich MS by John Tiltman in 1975, and in the following years she wrote a monograph (see note 27), summarising all recorded work about the Voynich MS. For thirty years this has been the standard reference for the Voynich MS, and it is still the most quoted work about it.
She also wrote several papers about different features of the MS text (40).

Prescott Currier

See D'Imperio Section 6.8.
His important presentation in 1976 is available in digital form at this site (41).
Further information about his discovery of different hands and different "languages" in the Voynich MS is also discussed extensively elsewhere at this web site (see note 2).

A.G. Watson

Watson identified that the foliation of the Voynich MS is in the hand of John Dee. This is however contested by other Dee experts.

John Stojko

Stojko proposed in a book published in 1978 (43) that the Voynich MS is a copy of a series of letters written in Ukrainian. These letters were encrypted by removing all the vowels and writing the consonants in a secret alphabet. The main reasons why Stojko's solution is finding little acceptance are:

Leo Levitov

Levitov proposed a pronuciation for the characters of the Voynich MS which leads to a largely pronounceable text, which he claims is in a creole mainly based on Flemish. His translation of this text deals with a Cathar cult of Isis followers, and rites related to Euthanasia. He published his results in a monograph (44). The linguistic aspect has been contested by Jacques Guy (45). and the differences with the known practices of the Cathars in S.France have been analysed by Dennis Stallings (46).


Proposed a solution based on a Nordic language.

Modern research

From the earliest days of the internet, this medium has been used as place for discussions related to the Voynich MS and in 1991, after a flurry of electronic mails via a Usenet newsgroup, a dedicated mailing list was set up. For a decade or so, this was the most focussed, yet very informal, study of the Voynich MS, by a group of people from a wide variety of backgrounds. The first ftp site dedicated to the MS was created by Jim Gillogly. Since then, many new web resources dedicated to the Voynich MS have been set up, including wikis and blogs, but the original mailing list still exists, even though it has moved a few times before it settled onto its >> current home.

The main initial activities of this new group (apart from the ultimate desire to explain the text of the Voynich MS) were to obtain access to a good copy of the MS and to continue / complete the transcription of the MS. With respect to the former, on 1 June 2004 the Beinecke library has made available a nearly complete high-quality digital colour scan of the MS. It can be accessed by clicking on the Pics button on most pages at this web site.

Further transcriptions of missing pages in the Currier / D'Imperio files were made by the group, and Reeds discovered the almost complete transcriptions made by Friedman's study groups, in the George C. Marshall Library and Archives in Lexington, Virginia. These were entered in computer form by J.Reeds and J.Guy.

In 1995, the herbal expert in medieval herbals Sergio Toresella inspected the MS at the Beinecke library and wrote, in an article concerned with 'alchemical herbals' (47) that the Voynich MS appears to be written in a script fitting with the Italian humanist book movement, and should therefore be dated around 1460, and not much later. He also suggests that the purpose of the book was to impress the gullible clientele of a doctor or quack.

Individual students of the Voynich MS have performed a multitude of analyses of the MS. It presently appears too difficult to treat these properly at this site, and only the briefest and not up-to-date summary is presented at the analysis pages. It is possible to retrieve the archives of the early years of this mailing list in compressed form from the >> mailing list home page (go to bottom).

Jorge Stolfi

In the late 90's and early years of the 21st century the Brazilian mathematician Jorge Stolfi published several analyses of the statistical properties of the Voynich MS text, in particular explaining the word structure in detail. These are presented in more detail in the analysis pages.

Gordon Rugg

A proposed solution to the Voynich MS, which attracted a lot of media attention, was developed by Gordon Rugg in 2003. Based on statistical analyses by Jorge Stolfi, Rugg proposed that the Voynich MS text could well have been generated more or less randomly by techniques which would have been available in the 16th Century, and points in particular to Edward Kelley as the perpetrator of the implied hoax (48).

The proposed method consists in the use of a Cardan grille and a set of sheets with word fragments or syllables. The major problems with this are that:

There is, however, an important aspect which lies at the basis of Gordon Rugg's theory. This relates to the question why the solution to the Voynich MS has not yet been found. Rugg's answer to that question is that all analysts are making a number of assumptions, and these assumptions are prohibiting them from finding the answer. More specifically, essentially everyone assumes that the MS text is meaningful and can be deciphered. While Rugg's solution hasn't been accepted, this understanding of hidden or unstated assumptions is certainly very important.

The Voynich MS may very well have no meaningful content, either deliberately by the author, or because its meaning was lost in the process of its creation.

Nick Pelling

Nick Pelling presents his theory about the authorship of the Voynich MS in "The Curse of the Voynich" - Pelling (2006) (49). Based on details in the illustrations of the Voynich MS, in particular the rosettes folio, he believes that the MS originates from Milan, around or shortly after the middle of the 15th Century. As author he identifies the architect Antonio Averlino, based on details of his life.

Beside this theory, Nick presents many detailed and important observations about the MS itself, related to the writing and to the composition of the codex. He continues to explore both paths at his very extensive blog.

Andreas Schinner

Important statistical analyses were performed by the Austrian mathematician Andreas Schinner, which were published in Cryptologia (50). The results strongly suggest that the text of the Voynich MS is probably meaningless. This work has received some media attention due to its relation with the work of Gordon Rugg, but due to its complicated nature it has not yet been properly understood or assessed in Voynich MS circles.

Edith Sherwood

The retired PhD in chemistry Edith Sherwood has performed a number of analyses on the Voynich MS, which she presents at a well-designed web site. It includes (among others) her theory that the Voynich MS was written by a young Leonardo da Vinci, her identification of most of the herbal drawings in the MS, and a possible solution to the text.

Web logs (blogs)

A large number of people have set up web logs (better known as blogs) about their theories related to the Voynich MS, many of which are listed here. Robert Teague has developed a theory whereby he connects several illustrations in the astronomical part of the MS with celestial events taking place in the 16th Century. He has especially concentrated on comet events, and the path of the moon through the Pleiades, which would appear to be represented on folio 68r3. More recently, P. Han of the UK has presented a very similar theory on an elaborate web site.

Other large blogs are those of Ellie Velinska (concentrating on illustrations in other MSs with similarity to the Voynich MS) Rich SantaColoma (evolving theories) and Diane O'Donovan. Also in the smaller blogs, real nuggets of information may be hidden.

100 years of Voynich MS

In 2012 the traditional (51) discovery of the Voynich MS in Villa Mondragone reached its 100th anniversary. This was celebrated with a conference in the same villa, on 11 May. It was attended by a multitude of active Voynich researchers and included a series of presentations on all relevant areas of research. A report of this event is provided at a separate set of pages.

More statistical analyses

More recent statistical analyses of the Voynich MS text have been published in various media. Deserving particular mention are the publications of Knight and Reddy, of Marcel Montemurro, and the less well-known but equally intriguing work done at the University of Adelaide. There are likely to be many more that I am not aware of. This topic is addressed in the text analysis section, which presently still requires a lot of work.

More recent proposed solutions

The year 2014 has seen a flood of newly proposed solutions, some of which received some attention in the press. Most prominent were the theory that the Voynich MS is associated with the Aztec culture in Meso-America, by Tucker and Talbot, and the tentative identification of about 10 herb names in the text, by UK linguist S. Bax.


This is very clear from the documents left by Voynich, now kept as collateral material to the Voynich MS in the Beinecke library of Yale University.
As explained in a later section of this web site.
As recorded in the 2009 documentary film produced by ProOmnia and ORF.
The Barschius letter is discussed here and the Marci letter here.
From Arber (1912) chapter 4, paraphrased here.
As discussed in detail in Garber (2002). The source of her work is quoted and translated here.
Significant parts of the catalogues of various collections are available digitally on-line, but searches have not turned up anything so far. It could also have ended up in the Italian State Archive in 1873. In any case, the chances that this material has survived are very small.
He was working until 1646, see his biography.
Rafal Prinke, priv. comm.
For more details, see his biography.
Which are discussed here.
Published in Smolka and Zandbergen (2010).
Sign. VI B 12b, p.70. The relevant text of the letter is transcribed here.
See Kahn (1967).
See Voynich (1921).
From a letter dated 10 April 1919 to Miss Louise Loomis, who had provided a new translation of the Marci letter. Here he announces his theory that Dee sold the MS to emperor Rudolf.
Bolton (1904). Following is a partial listing of the names, and in brackets the page number on which this name first appears in Bolton, showing that he noted these names as he was reading the book.
Christ von Hirschberg (p.19), Daniel Prandtner, alchemist (p.19), Magister Jeremias (p.19), Salomena Scheinfplug (p.20), Claudius Syrrus (p.20), Ch.Guarinonius Ital. alchem. (p.23), Wresowitz (library ???) contained akchells ??? (p.37), George Kretschmar (p.39), Drebbel, was imprisoned (p.93), Typotius Libr. To Rudolph (p.160), Sebald Schwertzer [long] (p.65), Sendivogius (p.123).
Ironically, among the people listed in the above note, Sebald Schwertzer actually sold (or rather gave) a Roger Bacon MS to Rudolf. It is now preserved in Leiden, see a >>web page of Philip Neal.
After Tepenec came Dr. Raphael, followed by Mardochaeus de "Delle" (Bolton's mistake, it should be "Nelle") and Jacopo di Strada, and others not directly at Rudolf's court.
Bolton (1904), see also notes 17 and 18 above. Garland pointed out to Voynich that it is a popular and romanticised book, based on the writings of Joseph Svatek.
Yet, in his 1921 publication Voynich acknowledges the support from the director of the Bohemian State Archive, but not that of his own staff.
For the research about Barschius, see also: source material: Marci about Barschius and source material: Voynich about Barschius.
De Sepi (1678), p. 65.
He was specifically hoping to find further evidence that his was a Bacon MS, but that has not materialised from Kircher's correspondence.
As Newbold (1928)
See Manly (1931)
D'Imperio (1978). This publication will be cited frequently on this page.
O'Neill (1944).
I am grateful to Richard SantaColoma for providing copies of the letters in the Grolier Club.
From a letter of E.L.V. to James Westfall Thompson, written in 1932. Now preserved in the Beinecke Library archive.
Information provided to the Voynich MS mailing list by J. Reeds. It will be of interest to find the source of this information.
As regards the sunflower, Panofsky is referring to the publication of O'Neill (1944)
The famous renaissance architect Leon Battista Alberti (1404 - 1472). He is also one of the suspected authors of the mysterious book "Hypnerotomachia Polifili" (more popularly ascribed to one Francesco Colonna), which includes text in hieroglyphics.
See >>wikipedia article.
William Jerome Wilson was co-author of De Ricci's census...., (1937), the first edition of which was being completed at that time, and Anne Nill was working for him, composing the various indices to this publication.
See Feely (1943).
See Tiltman (1967).
I will include some of his zodiac (star) label decryptions here (later) to show this.
See Bennett (1976).
One of which is available at this site.
See this dedicated page. See also here.
Blunt and Raphael (1979).
See Stojko (1978)
See Levitov (1987)
See >> Link preserved by J. Stolfi
See >> here
Ref: Toresella (1995)
Published in Cryptologia, Jan. 2004 and Scientific American, Summer 2004
See Pelling (2006).
See Schinner (2007).
From all remaining evidence it is impossible to conclude whether it was 1911 or 1912. The latter date is preferred as it is the date Voynich used in his first presentation on the MS in 1921. The role of the Villa Mondragone is further analysed critically here.
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Latest update: 17/05/2015